The Four “Cs” by Coach Mackenzie.

Coaching tip

Brian Mackenzie is a performance coach for the United Kingdom Track and Field Team. In 1997 he published a sports science paper in Psychologythat remains widely referenced and applied today. (1,)Mackenzie has illuminated some of the common denominators found among elite athletes. These common elements, associated with mental fitness, are what Mackenzie calls the “4C’s.”

The 4Cs are:

  • Concentration:your ability to maintain focus.
  • Confidence:believing in your ability.
  • Control:your ability to maintain emotional control regardless of the distraction.
  • Commitment:your ability to continue working toward your goal. (1)

It seems Mackenzie’s work is ideally suited for archery. Whether training, hunting or in competition the 4 C’s are relevant.


  1. Mackenzie, B. (1997) Psychology [WWW] available from: http//