Old Geezer Speed Demons

Here in Georgia I’ve been getting in more cycling miles than I did in North Carolina. Partly, this is because all the roads are new. Partly because the roads are mainly rolling hills which is my favorite terrain to ride.

During my rides I’ve seen loads more riders than I did in North Carolina. There is rarely a day when I’m riding that I don’t see other riders. The riders here, the ones I’ve seen, are fast.

All of the riding and seeing other cyclists has sparked an old competitive cycling flame. That flame does not extend to criteriums or road races. Should I race a pure bicycle race it would be a time trial. The likelihood of a crash in lowest during a time trial compared to road races or crits. As a past triathlete I’m a pretty good time trial rider. As an archer I can’t afford a crash that could break a collarbone, arm, hand, or even having to deal with road rash. Heck, that simply applies to being alive. So, if I race it would be a time trial.

Having the cycling bug awakened I began looking for an individual time trial where I could race. I’m not ready to race. I could race but I am not in cycling race shape. If I entered a time trial right now I would not win even in my age group. I knew that before I started checking current race results. I check what the current race times are for riders in my age group for individual time trials.

The race results I read pretty much squashed any consideration I’d had of enrolling into a cycling time trial. The finish times were just too incredible. While it hasn’t been that long since I raced those races where triathlons and duathlons. In both I’d competed in world championships and had twice been selected to represent the USA as a Team athlete. As fast as I thought I was there is no way I could compete with the times I discovered.

The times I read for older riders were absolutely amazing. The top riders are faster than some Professional Triathletes! Some of them, over similar distances would have ranked with Professional men cyclists at races like the Tour of France and the Tour of Italy. It was truly incredible. It seems old guys have gotten really fast.

What’s more impressive is that as we age we lose lung volume. The means that older riders won’t have the same vital capacity, lung volume, or ability to flush CO2 from there bodies and bring in oxygen as well as younger riders. One older rider that caught my eye was able to complete a time trial (30K) nearly as fast as the winner of a Professional time trial (30K). In fact, this older rider would have beaten many of the professionals in the comparable event.

I then checked the times of some of my old racing buddies to see if they had found this fountain of youth that kept them fast as they were during their true glory days. A number of them had been on an Olympic Team and they never stopped racing. So, those fellows should be smashing the times of the older amateurs that picked up competitive cycling after they retired.

Nope! The newly minted old geezer cyclists would kick the ex-Olympians butts. I know the current old geezers would bet me – I was never as fast as these monster old guy cyclists.

I suppose this new breed of old guy time trialists are remarkable athletes. It would have been hard to imagine a guy in his mid-60’s cranking out speeds faster than professional triathletes and in some cases profession men cyclists had I not read the results.

The question comes to mind, “How is this possible?”

Under normal physiological processes I don’t believe the times represent the entire picture. For example, I know that human growth hormone can lead to improvement in lung volume among older mean. I know that testosterone can improve training and EPO can improve races results. Certainly, the old fellows racing for fun wouldn’t be using PEDs to win races against other old guys out for a fun day of bicycle races. Seriously, do all that (cheating) for a First Place the award is a $2.00 medal.

At some point I may still look for a bicycle time trial to race. But, it will be for fun.

Here me now, believe me later references:

https://www.ijdp.org/article/S0955-3959(17)30140-8/pdf

http://www.velonews.com/2016/06/feature/totally-amateur_408457

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659343/

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/jun/01/dope-and-glory-the-rise-of-cheating-in-amateur-sport

Cycling – Dumb Stuff I Do

It was hot, 94°F, and no complaint from me. I’d been outside all day. I’d run, shot for 2 hours, dug up 15 Lenton Rose bushes at one of my daughter’s homes, loaded them into my truck, then replanted them at our home. I’d planted Ivy, had a nice lunch, took a 30-minute break and was heading out for a bike ride before afternoon archery practice.

Because it was hot (and I was wiped) I had planted a nice easy ride. When I grabbed a kit for the ride I’d pulled out an old Vapotherm jersey. The jersey is about 12 years old. Vapotherm is a medical device company that makes a product to help people breathe. It was a total random thing grabbing the jersey. It could have been any number of other jerseys. At any rate I wore it.

On the ride I thought it might be cool to send a picture of the old jersey to friends that had also ridden wearing a similar jersey a decade or so ago. I slowed down, coasted, and tried to take a selfie of the jersey. The result of that is shown here.

While doing so a “hot shot” on his bike zoomed past me. I was maybe coasting at 7 mph. He was cruising at around 20 mph. He said a cocky, “Hello” and didn’t slow down. No problem except for the cocky tone in his voice.

I could have let is pass. I knew what was going through my head was going to hurt – me. I decided it was going to be worth the pain.

Putting my phone back into my jersey pocket I put some power on and chased the hotshot down. Now, I didn’t exactly catch him. I didn’t want to be any closer than about 5 to 10 yards. Just close enough that he would know I was back there.

He appeared to be a competitive cyclist as evidence by his shaved legs and cocky attitude. Going through his ears was now the sound of another cyclist behind him but not on his wheel. He can do a few things: 1) keep the same pace, 2) speed up and see if the can get rid of the bothersome unknown rider, or 3) slow down and see if the rider in the back could be a new friend with whom to train. The latter is the choice of a gentleman. He chose the option number two. I’d suspected that would be his decision. This is the part I knew would hurt.

As he increased his pace I hung just behind him at a 5 – 10 yard gap. If I got closer than 5 yards I’d coast. Coasting on a nice bike makes a distinct sound and can be heard from a short distance. The sound is so distinct that unless the cyclist was deaf he knew that someone was behind him, not drafting, but coasting. This happened when we came off a downhill and began the uphill or when I inadvertently got too close.

What I wanted to do was present the image of an old fellow out for a leisurely ride that just happened to be riding the same direction as the puffed-up fellow. I also knew if the guy really was in shape I’d only be able to keep this up for a few miles.

Actually, he was really, really good. His leg spin was flawless; he was smooth and not even a tad squirrely on his bike. After five miles I thought that maybe I’d ride beside him and introduce myself. I didn’t. I was a little embarrassed. I kept my distance.

I wasn’t too sure where we were and I knew now I had a pretty long ride home. He’s made a turn off my normal route. I’m still learning the back roads here.

Eventually, I pulled off onto a road that I hoped would put me on a path home. I’d been playing this game for six miles. I wasn’t hurting as much as I thought I’d be by this point. However, I was hurting. The guy did turn out to be a good rider, held a steady pace, and would have been easy to ride with. I regret not introducing myself. I lost a potential person to train with. But, the game was fun. (At least in my head)

Overall Fitness – Bicycling

Being fit and healthy is a good way to extend your career as an archer. To be sure, archery is not a sport that is heavy on fitness requirements. However, if you find yourself carrying excess weight then long tournaments can become a physical strain.

There are a number of ways to improve your general health such as walking, running, and bicycling. The list of supplemental programs to improve your general health and fitness is tremendous.

Bicycling is one way to improve leg strength, shoulder and arm strength, and add cardio conditioning. It is also a fun way to enjoy the outdoors.

Riding a bike will burn around 800 calories per hour. An hour riding a bike passes quickly. When you were a kid you probably had a bicycle that was your ticket to freedom. Hop on a bike, take a spin, you may find that youthful feeling of freedom returns.

(Photographs were taken during yesterday’s bike ride near Good Hope, Georgia)

Starting to Settle In

We’re so close to being completely into our new house. There are still several projects on the list.

The land behind the house still isn’t cleared enough to put out a 3D range. We’re waiting on a builder to put up a second shed for the lawn tractor and kayaks. These are the remaining two big projects.

River enjoying a deer antler while I practice. Practicing with a brand new Elite Victory 37.

Then, we still have things, including our RV, at our place in North Carolina. That means a trip to haul those things down to Georgia. In the meantime, I am trying to get in archery practice and maintain decent cardio workouts.

Finally, I do have a nice area to train for 18 meters. I will have a nice 50-meter range near my 3D range when the land clearing is completed. There is also a nice place to run, nice road cycling and really nice off-road biking right from my front door.

Still getting a feel for my new bow.

The road riding is great. Empty roads, little traffic, and rolling hills. There are dogs. Yesterday, one four legged sprinter gave me two informational gathering bites on my left foot. It wasn’t painful nor did the bites break skin. I was more worried about this little dog getting hung up in a wheel and knocking me down and his teeth. This was the first time a dog has ever bitten me.

I really think it was the dog trying to figure out was I was. The bites seemed not very aggressive. Dogs get a lot of information through taste. Stinky human foot took this microcelphalic a couple of tastes to learn I wasn’t a threat. On the return home I made certain I was carrying enough speed so that sprint as he might, the varmint of the Jack Russell variety couldn’t catch up.

All in all we’re starting to settle in at our new home in Good Hope.

New Tires And A Tried Lecture

One of the chores I’ve been putting off for years was replacing the tires on my LeMond Maillot Jaune road bike. The old tires were slick as ice. Because I have other bikes I have been lazy about changing those old tires.

Changing tires is one of my least favorite chores. It is also an inexpensive chore to farm out to a bike shop. Since the shop is selling a customer new tires installing them can typically be done for a small addition fee. In some cases as low as $5.00 per tire or even free when you purchase new tires. (I like free)

I’d tried to get this done in Elizabeth City, North Carolina at the one bicycle shop in town. I dropped the bike off expecting the new tires within a matter of days. Weeks later the Maillot Jaune was still wearing old sad tires. Rather than wait any longer I picked up the bike and connected it to my Computrainer where a flat wouldn’t leave me out in the sticks changing a tube that would likely go flat before I made it home. There, on the Computrainer is where this wonderful all Campy Record equipped bike sat for years. When we moved and I took the bike off the trainer. It was packed along with our household possession onto a large truck.

Notice the green tape? It’s a numbered sticker from last week’s move.

Once the movers arrived at our new home in Georgia the bike like everything else was off loaded from the truck.

So, being detached from the trainer the LeMond was going to have another try at getting new tires. I removed its Kovochi wheels and took them to Sunshine Cycle’s in Watkinsville. There I’d finally select new tires.

The wheels wore old Continental’s that were 21mm in width. That is narrow. All my other road bike tires are 23mm wide. Now, there are all manner of “research data” related to bicycle tire width. If you’re a serious cyclist you’ve already read a lot of that tire width research. I, too, have read a good amount of the work on tire width. Honestly, I don’t care a whole lot about the data presented in most of the papers I read. I care about the feeling I get from where the tire meets the road.

I love the feel of 21mm tires. I love the sound they make rolling on the road. Most of all it is being able to feel the road. So, I tried to get another set of 21mm tires to replace the old. It is a rare tire, the 21mm, and I didn’t expect to find them at Sunshine Cycle’s. They didn’t have any 21mm, so I bought 23mm along with new tubes. The work was done is about 30 minutes.

Even though the job for Sunshine was a fast bit of labor I didn’t want to wait having other errands to run. I came back the next day to settle my bill and get the wheels. When I picked up the wheels as a bonus I got a free lecture.

There are people in the world that are self-proclaimed experts or know-it-alls. I suppose they’re good-natured folks that believe sharing their wisdom is a mission. When I cross paths with such an expert I must wear a look of ignorance because too often I get a free lecture.

I always listen. There are times when the wizard’s pontifications reveal pearls of knowledge that I don’t yet own. Even lectures where the information shared is already in my head I listen to be polite. Picking up my wheels, I had to listen to be polite. However, the speaker nearly crossed a line.

That line is where the actor orates in a manner of speaking down to his audience of one. He will further throw out the affidavits of others to bring home his point. In that bike shop presentation, of which I will not repeat to prevent blood oozing from your eyes, I was put into my place for wanting 21mm tires.

An old license. I probably still have older ones laying around. This one is a “Cat 2”

I was admonished by the expertise of what the “Cat 1 and Cat 2” riders are currently sporting on their wheels.   My reprimand for the 21mm tires was non-stop while the reasons for my error highlighted the room.

Let me state that Sunshine Cycle’s is one of the best bike shops in the world. I’ve been visiting the shop off and on for about a quarter of a century. I’ve been in bicycle shops all over the world. My all time favorite the Yellow Jersey in Savannah, Georgia is gone. My second favorite Star Bike shop is still in Savannah. Sunshine is tied with Star for first place since the Yellow Jersey is gone. Second place is the Bianchi bike shop in Florence, Italy. When I raced in Italy, they were a great help getting me signed up for races.

An old international license used for racing in Europe.

Now, I don’t know what other “Cat 1 or Cat 2” riders are currently using on their bikes. I stopped bicycle racing in 2011 and had been focused on triathlon since 2006. I suppose if a cyclist is racing Paris-Roubaix his bike might be rolling 25mm or 28mm tires. Like I said, I don’t know. As a former, “Cat 1 or Cat 2” cyclist, I do know what it is I like to have on my wheels and 23mm is wide enough for me with the occasional 21mm to get a feel for the road. But, I suppose I just have that look that projects ignorance with a need to be lectured. Despite the speaker’s intent, I will order 21mm and ride them.

Working Hard and Looking Like a Model

We’re fix’in to move. Nearly everything I own is boxed packed and disassembled. Where are the movers? They’re not late; I’d hoped they’d be early. So, here I sit, bored with nothing to do other than waste brain cells scanning the Internet of anything at all of interest.

During that scan I uncovered a common theme among a select group of individuals. The more apparent it become the more comical is seemed. Collectively, I’ll judge and label them as Posers.

In cycling we have a similar group. In cycling we refer to them as “Freds”. A Fred is that cyclist that has all the gear; wears expensive Pro-team replica uniforms, has watched every Tour de France, and is eager to toss out self-worth at a moments notice. The only flaw with Fred is Fred can’t ride.

Sure, Fred can peddle a bicycle without crashing. That is unless Fred happens to be in a group of other riders and has not yet been dropped off the back of the pack. Fred in a bunch of riders is a serious hazard. Not that other riders worry for long, Fred is gone soon after the pace begins to climb.

In archery there is a counterpart to Fred. These are the individuals I refer to here as Posers.

As is scanned and scrolled over the Internet these Posers began to pop. Common threads began to catch my eye. The first suspicion was how often  these Posers had so many absolutely pristine photographs of themselves.

Admittedly, I am jealous. Online, in my case, the photographs are awful. Those I discovered of me reek from nerd or geek to sweaty, snotty nosed, and disheveled. How is it that any image of me seems totally without the composed grace of a Poser?

Taking a deeper dive into the Poser, I sought remedy to my shamed ego. Then, another clue surfaced. The Poser images seemed to have been professionally captured.

I confuss that professional photographers, mostly lining some race course, have taken a number of pictures of me. I have shamelessly posted them here and on social media. I am not without sin.

The difference is that, unlike the Poser, I was mostly unaware of the shot being taken. Occasionally, I’d see a photographer on a racecourse and I knew she was snapping pictures. Sadly, my awareness was often too late to “fix” myself up. I’d round a turn in a race and there’d sit someone with a fancy camera and ‘Press’ name tag. There I’d be with a grimace, snotty nose, and glazed eyes.

The Poser photographs are of people composed, clear-eyed, sporting perfect skin, and wide smiles with sprinkling teeth. Occasionally, they’re emitting a stern look almost philosophical in nature. It is as if the Poser is somehow trying to portray a spiritual appearance before or after something meaningful that is about to or has just occurred. Seeing such sincere expressions on other athletes made me glad I’ve only once been digitally frozen in time while taking a “natural break” on the side of a road. (Lake Placid Ironman, 2011 – urinating next to a bush. Posterior view only. Professional Photographer, Larry Ten Ecyk. Thanks, Larry.)

The final clue of the Poser that pushed me over the top of this ridiculous barrage of posing is make-up. Upon close inspection it was obvious many of the Posers are wearing make-up!

Wearing make-up to compete. Wearing make-up to shoot. Wearing make-up to hunt! (Women and men) Yes, we’ve seen those Olympic sprinters lining up for a 100-meter sprint wearing make-up. We’ve noticed their beauty and grace. We are aware they are wearing make-up. They are also being paid millions of dollars to run great and if they look good while doing so, fine. Pay me millions (even thousands) to shoot a bow, run or ride a bike, and someone can slap make-up on my face. (It won’t help; I’ll still sweat it off, grimace, blow snot and look bad in general.)

These Internet Posers aren’t Olympians. They seem to be individuals with more money and ego than necessary. They engage professional photographers and make-up artists to capture them posing as make believe athletes. Certainly, there are Posers that look good doing whatever it is they are trying to look good at while doing it. I remain apart from that group.

Two years ago a photographer was accompanying a newspaper reporter at an archery tournament where I was competing.  The reporter wanted a picture of me to use with his article and asked permission before setting his photographer loose upon me.  I agreed and the photographer followed me around doing gyrations with her camera while clicking away pictures.

That day the news duo showed me the picture they’d selected to run with the newspaper article.  The article ran, the paper’s editor had chosen to exclude the picture of me. Again, my fifteen minutes denied.

Perhaps, Posers think the image of them looking good doing something athletic will encourage Nike to send them a contract. It won’t. If you’re good enough Nike will find you. Should that happen you won’t need to worry about make-up or looking good. You’ll just need to be great at your sport.

Archery manufacturers don’t seem quite as discriminating as Nike. Hunting apparel companies, well… a nice face and body can lead to an income as a model. Heck, is many cases, when it comes to archery or hunting a beer belly is not a disadvantage.

In fact, Posers seem to be play-acting as models in hope of becoming an outdoor adventure model. Certainly for some it has worked. To them I say, “Good on you!” From what I’ve scanned online today, among Posers many aren’t seeing what I’ve seen. All of them, however, are better looking than me. At least, they are more photogenic. And overall, no sweat, dirt, grimace, or run away boogers.

This moving stuff

Getting a new house is exciting. Getting one that we don’t have to immediately renovate is nice. Here’s the thing, before we’ve set foot in the door we’ve changed ceilings, customized closets, had kitchen plans modified, added trim work everywhere inside the house, changed the driveway, and picking out everything from flooring to roofing. The past few days we’ve hired someone to build a custom shed on the property, found a fence guy, and met with a landscaper to work on the 3D range.

The landscaper was a lucky find. He’s also an archer. He’s not the landscaper that is currently doing our landscaping. Both are archers. The current guy is too busy. The new guy, Andy is our new next-door neighbor. As such, a lucky find.

The other landscaper guy told me he was so busy he had no idea when he might have time to help design my 3D range. However, he mentioned that there is a free 3D range just 15 minutes from our new house. Needing a break from spending money I decided to search for this free 3D range.

Certainly uninteresting shots but good for judging yardage.

I found it. In fact, it is only 15 minutes from my house. But, it is simply 3D targets set up on a range. It’s not 100% free. You need to have a Georgia DNR Hunting license. So, aside from that fee, which I pay anyway, I’m good to go on the DNR range.

Today wasn’t the day to test the free range. It was too cold and windy.  Still hoping to shoot my bow on the round trip home, I stopped at Ace Hardware Social Circle. Now where I wrote ‘home’ I am referring to my daughter’s house in Watkinsville. We’re staying with her while we add a few finishing touches to our house in progress.

Oh, I can’t wait to shoot this big fellow.

In Social Circle Ace is the Place to shoot indoors. It was nice to get some practice. On this trip, we left about 10 days ago; I’ve only gotten in three practice sessions. Today made the fourth. On a more positive note, running is above par and cycling is just below on my current training plan.

Trying to compensate for some loss of hours training, running and riding were on today’s agenda along with archery. Running and riding in the cold really takes it out of me. I’ve been asleep since I began writing this post.

Mountain Biking, Shooting and Ditching (Not in that order)

Ditching was first on the agenda. Not my agenda, River’s agenda. If you haven’t been a reader here you might not know who is River. River is my Labrador Retriever. I’ve not met a Lab that doesn’t love the water. River is crazy about water.

It rained hard here in Georgia yesterday. Every ditch and creek was brimming with water. River runs with me and this morning we headed out to run a trail we discovered yesterday. Knowing of a ditch that pools with water along the usual run I decided to avoid that direction. I was pretty sure we could get to the new trail a back way. It was an attempt to keep River out of the rain off ditch pool.

River has been smelling a bit ‘above bad’ having had a bath last week. It would be nice if she’d not stink when we’re visiting family. Were here in Georgia visiting family for Christmas. River doesn’t often have ‘nice’ wafting off of her coat. If she goes ditching (Ditching: jumping into a water filled earthy conduit and running as hard as possible) there is going to be stink.

It’s not that she’s naturally stinky. She works hard to reach an apex of olfactory funk. Rather than chance she’d jump into an overflowed ditch that forms such a tempting pool of water we headed in the opposite direction. That didn’t end up as planned.

The run put us at trails that simply called us forward. After nearly an hour of running it was becoming clear we were heading around a wide weaving circle. In the back of my mind a worry suggested we’d come out of the woods at a point where the pool would be between home and us. I considered turning back figuring that might add another 45 minutes to the run. That time would eat into archery practice. We remained on course. Plus, I wasn’t really up for nearly 2 hours of trail running.

It turned out my worry wasn’t unfounded. Once we cleared the woods my fragrant neutral dog hopes dimmed. Within two tenths of a mile there was the pool of rainwater. River was only 10 yards ahead, 30 yards from the water. She stopped as soon as she spotted her wet reward. Slowly she turned back toward me, gave dog grin and made a beeline for the ditch. I sprinted toward her and with increasing volume ordered her to stop. The louder I got the faster she sprinted.

River is a big girl at 105 pounds. She is all muscle. It always amazes me how much water she can displace at full tilt. There was no avoiding the bath to come. I did save time by not circling back only to lose it washing a dog.

Nevertheless, I got a decent ‘afternoon’ archery practice shooting at a 5-spot. The morning archery session was blown to washing River. I’d switched over from a 3-spot for a break. Since August 2  of this year every 5-spot practice has yielded a 300. But, if you shoot 5-spots a lot you know the X count is where the money waits. Only 47 X’s today. Frustrating.

The archery frustration was burnt off during an afternoon riding mountain bike. I wanted to follow the same trails we ran this morning only heading right rather than left (I already knew that was a wide circle) at a Y intersection.

At that point the trail begins to climb. Looking down at my Garmin I noted the mileage at the foot of the climb. That climb went on for one mile. The earlier rain made the path, having a base layer of red clay, one slippery exercise in staying upright and moving forward. Despite the greater than anticipated elevation in heart rate, to match the unforeseen length of the climb, it was a nice way to end the day. That and of course no broken bones or cuts.

Running and Shooting and Waiting Out the Rain

We’re back in Tignal, Georgia for a few days before we had off to Athens for Christmas. River and I hit the road before it rained. Man, has it rained. Running was pretty nice. First of all there was no rain. Secondly, there were lots of trails and double track to cruise.

Running along the sides of country roads isn’t bad primarily because we have minimal traffic. Getting totally off road is even better.

After an hour of trail running it was looking more and more like rain. Needing to get some archery practice in, having missed yesterday when we drove to Georgia from North Carolina, it was a rush to stay ahead of the guaranteed downpour.

This is a blast on a mountain bike

Both running and archery (at least the morning archery practice) were completed. Cycling and a second day’s archery practice now await cessation of rain.

The rain is easing off

Cycling and Training on a Computrainer

(This is not about archery. It’s regarding cycling and training. The abstracts below are linked if you’re into sports physiology and medicine.)

This is about the Computrainer by Racermate. It is without doubt the best training tool I’ve ever owned. I’ve had the one I use for over two decades.

My set-up

It’s a product I purchased originally for research. At that time I was studying oxygen desaturation during maximal effort among elite cyclists. (1) A decade after that initial study I repeated it and found the same result. (2) The abstracts are linked below and both appeared in peer-reviewed journals.

One of the many data screens

The device is a trainer connected to a computer. The name “Computrainer” isn’t much of a leap. I actually have a dedicated computer and leave everything connected including one of my bikes. As you might image, there is a wealth of physiologic data that can be collected from the Computrainer. In my research I added more diagnostic devices and discovered some cool stuff, which is included in one of my patents stemming from the research.

I use this screen a lot

These days, I’m not doing data collection. I use the decades old Computrainer for its primary purpose, for training. What is gives me is enough live data to keep pushing. It also let’s me ride courses, like the Ironman Hawaii (which I did yesterday). It is an excellent way to enjoy long hours in the saddle while not going anywhere.

Virtual cruise on the Queen K in Hawaii
200 Tour de France on another screen

During long sessions, I’ll add a video, yesterday’s was the 2000 Tour de France, and watch that as I ride. It does help the time pass. The Computrainer remains unparalleled as a training tool. There have been days I chose to ride it rather than going outside. A bonus is no cars being driven have phone addicted drivers to contend with.

You’ll notice it is dark outside – it was only 5:15 PM.

Reference:

1.) Lain D, Jackson C: Exercise induced hypoxemia (EIH) desaturation zones: a use or athletic training. Chest, Vol 118, No. 4, page 203S, 2000. Lain, David, and Chris Jackson. “EXERCISE-INDUCED HYPOXEMIA (EIH) DESATURATION ZONES: A USE FOR ATHLETIC TRAINING.” Chest, Oct. 2000, p. 203S. Academic OneFile, Accessed 14 Dec. 2017.

http://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA71127451&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=fulltext&issn=00123692&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1&isAnonymousEntry=true

2.)Lain, DC, Granger W: Oxygen saturation and heart rate during exercise performance. Anesthesia and Analgesia

https://www.stahq.org/files/1813/5845/7616/18_Lain2_Abstract.pdf

(Click the site above – this has neat color graphics. Check out the wattage the elite cyclists cranked out over a 10 mile course)